# Greek, Hebrew, Latin-based Symbols

A complete list of Greek symbols, Hebrew letters and Latin-based alphabets in mathematics, categorized by language into tables along with each symbol's usage and meaning.

The field of mathematics customarily uses letters as symbols for key mathematical objects. As a result, it often draws upon alphabets from other languages — such as Greek, Hebrew and Latin — whenever native symbols are lacking.

In particular, the following is a comprehensive list of alphabets from these three languages, along with the mathematical context each letter finds itself in. Other comprehensive lists of symbols — as categorized by subject and type — can be also found in the relevant pages below (or in the navigational panel).

Get the master summary of mathematical symbols in eBook form — along with each symbol’s usage and LaTeX code.

## Greek Symbols

Mathematics makes extensive use of Greek symbols to refer to key mathematical constants, variables, functions and other entities. The following table documents the complete 24 letters (plus 1 archaic letter) of the Greek alphabet, along with each symbol’s case, English equivalent, example and usage.

Among the 24 letters in the Greek alphabet, there are 14 letters whose uppercase shares the same appearance as their Latin counterpart. The following table documents an entire list of them.

## Hebrew Letters

Mathematics occasionally makes use of a subset of the Hebrew alphabet to refer to key numbers and functions in the theory of transfinite cardinals. The following table documents these symbols — along with their usage and example.

For other symbols related to infinite cardinals and ordinals, see cardinality-related symbols.

## Latin-based Alphabets

Since mathematical communications are often carried out in English (and other languages based on the Latin alphabet), mathematics often borrows and modifies these letters to refer to key sets, numbers, functions and other entities.

As a general rule of thumb, these symbols can be categorized into 4 typefaces: regular typeface, Fraktur, calligraphic/cursive and blackboard bold. The following table documents the most common of these — along with their name, usage, example and meaning.

For the master list of symbols, see mathematical symbols. For lists of symbols categorized by type and subject, refer to the relevant pages below for more.